As for the second one, the science people recently moved up the date for light-skinned genes evolving/occurring for the first time in humanity’s history. Turns out it was actually a relatively recent development:
Many scientists have believed that lighter skin gradually arose in Europeans starting around 40,000 years ago, soon after people left tropical Africa for Europe’s higher latitudes. The hunter-gatherer’s dark skin pushes this date forward to only 7,000 years ago, suggesting that at least some humans lived considerably longer than thought in Europe before losing the dark pigmentation that evolved under Africa’s sun.
"It was assumed that the lighter skin was something needed in high latitudes, to synthesize vitamin D in places where UV light is lower than in the tropics," Lalueza-Fox told LiveScience.
Scientists had assumed this was true because people need vitamin D for healthy bones, and can synthesize it in the skin with energy from the sun’s UV rays, but darker skin, like that of the hunter-gatherer man, prevents UV-ray absorption.
But the new discovery shows that latitude alone didn’t drive the evolution of Europeans’ light skin. If it had, light skin would have become widespread in Europeans millennia earlier, Lalueza-Fox said.
The new analysis of that DNA now shows the man had the gene mutation for blue eyes, but not the European mutations for lighter skin.
The DNA also shows that the man was more closely related to modern-day northern Europeans than to southern Europeans.
Apparently the science people are flailing around about it. To be fair, it’s a pretty significant change.